For a while now, I’ve been wanting to create a timeline of Israel just to examine ups and downs, purges, migrations and so forth. This is a work in progress using sources online. I’ve also included dates that may be pertinent to their history.
641 BCE Judea conquered by Babylon
538 BCE Cyrus allows Jews to go back to Judah under Zerubbabel
456 BCE Second group returns under Ezra and Nehemiah
70. AD. Destruction of the Jewish Temple
72 AD The fall of Masada
95 Titus Flavius Clemens (consul) condemned to death for converting to Judaism
115-117 Kitos War
130 Emperor Hadran vows to rebuild Jerusalem.
135 Bar Kokhba declares himself Messiah and revolts in the Iudaea Province (Judea) Hadrian attempts to root out Judaism. Changes name of Israel to Syria Palaestina to erase memory of Judah but recalling the name of Israel’s enemy: the Philistines. Aelia Capitolina built on Jerusalem’s site by Hadrian
144 Marcion against the Jewish Bible
150 Epistle to Digonetus (polemic against the Jews)
150 Martyrdom of Polycarp implicates the Jews; Justin Martyr’s Dialogue with Trypho
180 Octavius of Marcus Minucius Felix “To the Jews. Evil Always and Recalcitrant”
200 Tertullion’s An Answer to the Jews
335 Council in Jerusalem, reversed Nicaea’s condemnation of Arius, consecrated Jerusalem Church of the Holy Sepulcher
614 AD Jews expelled from Palestine after revolt against Heraclius
1040 – 1050 Karaite Jewish Community received book (Aleppo Codex) from Israel ben Simha of Basra
1099 – 1187 Jews slaughtered during the crusades
1160 David Alroy led a Jewish uprising in Kurdistan which aimed to reconquer the promised land
1290 Jews expelled from England
1391 Jews expelled from France
1440 Johannes Gutenberg invents printing press
1452 Gutenberg prints Bible in two volumes
1454 Gutenberg prints indulgences for Pope
1492 Jewish expulsion from Spain
1497 Jewish expulsion from Portugal
1499 Printing established in more than 2500 cities around Europe.
1516 Venice decrees Jews could live in Ghetto (with daily poll tax) and only for a limited time.
1517—1917 Israel conquered by Ottomans. Martin Luther pins the 95 Thesis on church door for discussion.
1524-1525 2nd Rabbinic Bible, Venice
1543 Martin Luther writes “On the Jews and their Lies” (Von den Juden und Ihren Lügen)
1555 Jews in Rome also said they could live in the Ghetto with daily poll tax
1568 Greek Orthodox in Crete receive letter by Patriarch Metrophanes III because of Jewish Mistreatment
1588 Simon of Trent canonized by Pope Sixtus V because at 2 years old, after he disappeared, his father said that he was kidnapped and murdered by the local Jews. 15 local Jews were sentenced to death and burned.
1648—1654 Khmelnytsky Uprising in Ukraine and the death of 100,000 Jews and the formulation of the Four Holy Cities
1648 Sabbatai Zevi from modern Turkey claimed he would lead the Jews back to Israel.
1654 twenty-three Jews arrive in New York
1776 Benjamin Kennicot edition of Masoretic Text including the Samaritan Pentateuch
1776 Declaration of Independence signed by the United States
1790, Aug 17 George Washington writes: “May the children of the stock of Abraham who dwell in the land continue to merit and enjoy the goodwill of the other inhabitants. While everyone shall sit safely under his own vine and fig-tree and there shall be none to make him afraid.”
1798 French invasion of Egypt
1799 Napoleon conquers coast and offers Jews a state: Jews refuse; Soviet Union actively pursues Pogroms
1801 Jewish Orphanage in Charleston, SC
1805 Pius VII canonizes Christopher or “The Holy Child of LaGuardia” who at age four was supposedly murdered by two Jews and four Jewish converts to Christianity. 8 Men were executed.
1812 French invasion of Russia turning point in Napoleon’s fortune
1815 Napoleon dies at Battle of Waterloo
1828 Plymouth Brethren founded, Dispensationalism dawns
1829 Anthony Norris Groves goes to Baghdad to preach the Gospel
1833 Millerites first public sharing that Jesus will return in Second Advent of 1843 – 1844
1839 British Dispatch reported that “the Jews of Algiers and its dependencies, are numerous in Palestine…”
1840 The Damascus Affair resulting in the populace attacking the synagogue and destroying the scrolls of Law and the torture of several Jews. Pogroms were initiated. David Porter, US Minister to Turkey, instructed by Forsythe to intercede
1843 Jesus doesn’t return
1844 Jesus doesn’t return: The Great Disappointment of the Seventh Day Adventists but later October became the date of Christ’s invisible return into the sanctuary in heaven
1844, May 24, Telegraph invented by Samuel Morse and message “What hath God wrought?” first sent.
1845 US Government offers equality to Jews with elected Lewis Charles Levin David Levy Yulee (who converted to Episcopalian in 1846),in all states ending with New Hampshire (1871)
1848 Plymouth Brethren split
1860 French Jews establish the Alliance Israélite Universelle
1863 General Order No 11 by Gen. Ulysses S. Grant: expulsion of Jews in military districts. Lincoln overturned it a couple of weeks later
1863 atrocities perpetrated upon the Jews of Morocco led the Board of Delegates to ask the intervention of the United States
1870 Mikveh Israel founded by fleeing Jews of Alliance Israelite Universelle
1878 Petah Tikva
1882 Rishon LeZion established; Tiszaeszlár blood libel where Jews were accused of ritual murder of 14 year old girl. Jews acquitted. Nationalism and pogroms increase across Europe pushing Jews to flee and consider an independent state.
1884 Charles Taze Russell founded Bible Student movement known today as Jehovah’s Witnesses
1897 First Zionist Congress “to establish a home for the Jewish people in Eretz-Israel secured under public law. 200 delegates from over 24 states. Ottomans leery
1899 Hilsner Affair where Jew was accused for murder of a Christian and someone else and life sentenced.
1902 British suggest territory in South Africa for Jewish relocation. Jews don’t want to divert energy’s from Israel.
1903 Kisnhinef Massacres and the Kishinef Petition. Jews accused of draining blood for matsov
1906 Jewish Encyclopedia “Gentiles May Not Be Taught the Torah” says: R. Emden, in a remarkable apology for Christianity contained in his appendix to “Seder ‘Olam,” gives it as his opinion that the original intention of Jesus, and especially of Paul, was to convert only the Gentiles to the seven moral laws of Noah and to let the Jews follow the Mosaic law — which explains the apparent contradictions in the New Testament regarding the laws of Moses and the Sabbath. Emden, R. “Appendix to “Seder ‘Olam,” pp. 32b-34b, Hamburg, 175
1907 Jewish National Fund owns some land in Palestine.
1909 Scofield Reference Bible
1910 Shiraz blood libel where Jews of Shiraz, Iran were falsely accused for murdering a Jewish girl.
1910-1915 The Fundamentals, a 12-volume collection of essays by 64 British and American scholars and preachers, a foundation of Fundamentalism
1913 Kiev Menahem Mendel Beiles accused of murdering a child to use blood for matzos.
1914 British seek Jewish support.
1917 Miracle of the Sun an event that was witnessed by as many as 100,000 people on 13 October 1917 in the Cova da Iria fields near Fátima, Portugal.
1917 Balfour Declaration “establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish People” with “it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine”
1917 Scofield Bible Edition 2
1919 Karl Barth’s Commentary on Romans is published, critiquing Liberal Christianity (while remaining liberal) and beginning the neo-orthodox movement
1920 – 1930’s Anti Religious Campaigns in Russia with Russian Orthodox Church
1931 Jehovah’s Witnesses founded see 1884 for more information.
1941 Stalin revives the Russian Orthodox Church for patriotic support
1945–1948: Jewish uprising against British Rule
1943 USSR releases Revisionist Zionist Menachem Begin who takes over the Etzel with a policy of increased conflict against the British
1946 British arrest thousands of Jews
1946 Kielce Pogrom in Poland and thousands of Jews wanting to escape Europe
1946 Eztel broken up by Union because of bombing British Military Headquarters in Palestine and the King David Hotel
- 120,000 Jews arrested and interrogated and shipped to Palestine
1947 Ernest Bevin refers the problem to the UN
1947 July Bevin orders an illegal immigrant ship (The Exodus 1947) to go back to Europe
1947-Sept – Nov UN partitions Palestine into two states: Arab and Jewish
1947 Fighting between Arab and Jewish communities of Palestine begins
1947 Dead Sea Scrolls discovered
1948 Fighting continues as British withdraw
1948 World Council of Churches is founded
1948, May 14 Israel declared a state : Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls discovered
- Arab league: Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq reject UN Resolution and declare war
1948, June Britain initiates UN Sec Council Regulation 50 Arms embargo
- Czechoslovakia violated the resolution supplying the Jewish state with critical military hardware 1949 Britain releases imprisoned men of fighting age from Cyprus
- Cease fire which allowed many Jews to come home—most of them WW2 Vets and Holocaust Survivors
- Arab Legion occupies West Bank and East Jerusalem
1949, March Permanent Cease fire. 2000 British prisoners (Jews) released. Israel admitted as a member of the UN
1950 Law of Return. Jewish population from Iraq, Yemen, Libya, Lebanon, Syria and Egypt are driven out. No Jew allowed to live or enter Saudi Arabia. 500,000 Jews left Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia
1952 Huge population boom and extreme poverty. Ben-Gurion to sign reparations agreement with West Germany’
1952 Soviet anti-Semitic public trial accused of trying to poison Stalin in The Doctor’s Plot
- Israel seeks friendship with the United States and the People’s Republic of China (but that wasn’t established until 1992)
1953 Ben Gurion retired
1954 Moshe Sharet PM of Israel but ruined by Lavon Affair (Egyptians planting bombs at American sites in Egypt. Defense Minister Lavon blamed)
1955 Ben Gurion PM again
1955 France becomes Israel’s principal arms supplier, Czechoslovakia supplies arms to Egypt
1958 Aleppo Codex (10th Century AD) smuggled back into Israel
1959 Nikita Khrushchev initiated his own campaign against the Russian Orthodox Church
1963 Martin Luther King leads a civil rights march in Washington, D.C.
1964 Levi Eshkol victor in elections
1965 Catholic church no longer holds Jews personally responsible for death of Jesus. Pope Paul VI removes Simon of Trent’s saint status
1966 France stops supplying arms and refused to refund money for 50 warplanes.
1966 security restrictions on Arab citizen of Israel lifted
1967 Revised Scofield Bible
- Egypt was ruled by Gamal Abdel Nasser
- Syria was governed by the radical Baathist Party, constantly issuing threats to push Israel into the sea.”
- Soviet Union had led the radical government in Damascus to believe that Israel was planning to invade Syria
- Nasser is informed and sends hundreds of tanks into Syria
- Hard-line approach adopted by the Likud Government
- Neighboring States massed their armies along its borders and Israeli cities came under fire from artillery positions in Samaria and in the environs of Jerusalem.
1967 Six Day War
- Air attacks against Egypt followed by air strikes in Jordan and Syria
- Syria, Jordan and Iraq launch air strikes on Haifa, Netanya and other Israeli cities. Jordan and Iraq attempt air-strikes against Tel Aviv but do launch artillery against the City
- Syrian forces launch artillery from fortified borders
- Israel takes Gaza, Ras el Naqeb and Jebel Libni from Egypt as well as Ramallah, North East Jerusalem, Ammunitions Hill and Talipot.
- Jordanian forces retreat
- U.N. Security Council presents a cease-fire initiative. Egypt’s President Gamal Abdel Nasser turns it down. Israeli Prime Minister Levi Eskol proposes to Jordan’s King Hussein that a cease-fire and peace talks begin. Hussein doesn’t respond.
- Bir al-Hasna and Al Qazima in Egypt are claimed by Israel.
- Syria and Israel fight in Golan
- Egypt accepts cease fire
- Hebron loses
- Fighting continues on Golan borders
- Golan Heights attack ordered
- Israel takes Kuneitra and Mas’ada
- Syria agrees to cease fire
- Israel claims Gaza Strip and Golan Heights and Sinai Peninsula to the Suez Canal
1967 Yasser Arafat organized an insurrection in the West Bank.
- Israel has been ready to negotiate a peaceful settlement of the Arab-Israel conflict through Security 1967 Resolutions 242 (1967 )
1968 US supplies Israel with aircraft
1969 Fighting with Egypt along the Suez Canal. Because of bombings from Egypt, Israel launches deep strikes in the 1969-1970 War of Attrition
1969 Cairo Agreement gave PLO a free hand to attack Israel from South Lebanon “Fatahland”
1970 King Hussein of Jordan drives out PLO from his country. USA requests Israel to meet Syrian tanks at border and Syria retreats. PLO moves to Lebanon
1971 Israeli Blank Panthers and the Prisoners of Zion were arrested in Soviet anti-Semitism trials and refused exit
1971 American edition of Luther’s ON The Jews and Their Lies
1972 11 Members of Israeli team to Munich Olympics taken hostage by Palestinians. Germans botched the mission, 11 athletes died, 5 terrorists shot and 3 survived and were released without charges. Israeli responded with an assassination campaign and a raid of PLO HQ.
1973 King Hussein warns Israel of Syrian attack. Golda Meir ignores warning.
1973 New International Version of the Bible is first published (revised in 1978,1984), using a variety of Greek texts, Masoretic Hebrew texts, and current English style
1973 Yom Kippur War with Israeli win
1973 Resolution 338 (1973)
1974 Henry Kissenger gets them to sign a Disengagement of Forces with Egyptian Government
- Saudi Gov’t initates oil embargo against states trading with Israel . Israel banned from the Asian Games. Africa and Asian countries broke off with Israel
1974, May Palestinians attack a school in Ma’a lot 102 Children hostage
1974, November Yasser Arafat granted observer status at the UN and addressed General Assembly
1975, Nov Zionism as a form of racism (Res 3379) rescinded in 1991 Res 46/86
1976 Air France hijacked by Palestinian and German terrorists. German passengers released. Plane held in Uganda and group rescued by Yitzhak Rabin’s (PM of Israel) plan. UN Secretary General Waldheim described the rescue as a breach of national security though later it was discovered he was on the Nazi Watch List of 1947. He was an officer.
1977 Anwar Sadat (Egypt) visited Jerusalem at invitation of Israeli PM Menachem Begin. Sadat recognized Israel’s right to exist. War Vets organized the Peace Now movement to encourage peace with Arabs.
1977 New Perspective on Paul. Focus on the Family founded by James Dobson
1978, 11 Lebanese-Palestinians hijacked a bus killing 45 people. Operation Litani. Launched by Israel. Sec Council Resolution 425 and the UNIFIL Peace Keepers.
1978 Camp David Accords peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. Israel returned Sinai
- Arab league suspends Egypt from the organization. Sadat later assassinated
1981 Israel destroys Osirak nuclear reactor that France was building for Iraq
1982 Israel returns Sinai Peninsula to Egypt
1982 Attempted assignation of Ambassador to Britain allows Israel to aim to drive PLO from southern Lebanon. Shia and Christians welcome Israeli’s (since they were mistreated by Palestinians)
1982 PLO withdraws forces and moves to Tunisia. Lebanon elects Bashir Gemayel who agrees to sign peace treaty but he’s assassinated. Elie Hobeika (Christian) leads Phalangist against Palestinian refugee camps and massacred the people.
1983 Yitzhak Shamir (PM of Israel)
1984 during famine in Ethiopia, thousands of Ethiopian Jews air-lifted to Israel
1987 Palestinian Infitada. B’Tselem formed by Jews to prevent Human Rights abuses by Israeli forces
1990 Soviet Union permits (finally) free emigration of Soviet Jews to Israel. 1 million migrated to Israel over the next years.
1990 Iraq invades Kuwait. Iraq attacks Israel with 39 SCUD missles but Israel doesn’t retaliate: she supplies gas masks for both the Palestinian and Israeli population
1992 Luther’s Vom Schem Hamphoras published as part of The Jew In Christian Theology by Gerhard Falk
1993 September Oslo accords, Israel doesn’t want to rule over other people. 97% of Palestinians on West Bank not under Israeli Occupation
1995 Yitzhak Rabin assassinated